Different levels of emergency preparedness plans are required for different levels of governments and other entities.
Continuity of Operations Plans
A plan that provides for the continuity of essential functions of an organization in the event an emergency prevents occupancy of its primary facility. The plan provides the organization with an operational framework for continuing its essential functions when normal operations are disrupted or otherwise cannot be conducted from the primary facility. Commonly, COOPs are developed for each department with emergency roles identified in the Emergency Operations Plan.
Debris Management Plans
A plan that establishes procedures and guidelines for managing disaster debris in a coordinated, environmentally-responsible, and cost-effective manner. An effective debris management plan: facilitates response and recovery activities, facilitates the quick return of a community to “normal”, reduces impacts to humans and the environment, ensures effective use of resources, helps to control and minimize costs, and aids in complying with applicable local, state/tribal/territorial, and Federal regulations.
Emergency Operations Plans
An all-hazards document that specifies actions to be taken in the event of an emergency or disaster event; identifies authorities, relationships, and the actions to be taken by whom, what, when, and where, based on predetermined assumptions, objectives, and existing capabilities. Some jurisdictions prefer to separate the policies in the EOP from the “operational” aspects. The “operational” document is commonly referred to as the EOC Manual. Additionally, it is common for jurisdictions with large response departments to maintain a Department Operations Plans and a Department Operations Center.
Local Hazard Mitigation Plans
Hazard Mitigation Plans are federally mandated containing coordinated actions taken to reduce injuries, deaths, property damage, economic losses, and degradation of natural resources due to natural hazard events. Hazard mitigation actions result in long-term beneficial effects. The plan provides documentation of valuable local knowledge on the most efficient and effective ways to reduce losses from hazard events.
Pre-Disaster Recovery Plans
The process of recovery encompasses both short-term and long-term efforts for the rebuilding and revitalization of affected communities. Response and recovery operations are closely related and it’s important to seize opportunities for mitigation. Pre-Disaster Recovery Plans are written well in advance of a disaster and ensure a near-seamless transition from response activities to short-term recovery operations — including restoration of interrupted utility services, reestablishment of transportation routes, and the provision of food and shelter to displaced persons.
Site Emergency Plans
This is a site-specific plan that outlines the basic organization and procedures utilizing an incident management system. Site Emergency Plans are commonly used at school sites and other stand-alone facilities within a larger organization. During emergencies, a Site Commander is the point of coordination for all operations until the arrival of local emergency responders. The site’s Emergency Response Team is briefed and deployed to address key issues during emergency operations. The team works as directed by the Site Commander. The Plan includes discussion of team member assignment, roles, responsibilities and duties.
Standard Operating Guidelines and Standard Operating Procedures
SOGs are instructions having the force of a directive, covering those features of operations which lend themselves to a definite or standardized procedure without loss of effectiveness. No room is left for interpretation or opinion - SOGs are intended to be followed in precisely the way and order in which they are written. An example of an SOG is a checklist followed by a nuclear generating station operator. In contrast, SOPs are reference documents or operations manuals that provide the purpose, authorities, duration, and details for the preferred method of performing a single function or a number of interrelated functions in a uniform manner. An example of an SOP is a checklist used to open an Emergency Operations Center. Although certain tasks need to be accomplished in a generally recommended order, there is room for change based on extenuating circumstances.